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Probing buried organic layers in organic light-emitting diodes under operation by electric-field-induced doubly resonant sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
3. T. Tsutsui, M. J. Yang, M. Yahiro, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuji, Y. Fukuda, T. Wakumoto, and S. Miyaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 38, L1502 (1999).
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Electric-field-induced doubly resonant sum-frequency generation (EFI-DR-SFG) spectroscopy was used to study the electric field distribution in multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Remarkable correlations between the DR-SFG signal enhancement and the applied bias voltage were observed. The SFG signals attributed to 4,4′-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-N-phenylamino)-biphenyl] were significantly enhanced by applying a forward voltage, whereas those from Alq3 were increased by applying a reverse voltage. The large enhancement in EFI-DR-SFG intensity enables us to nondestructively probe the local electric field distribution at the buried organic layer within the OLED.
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