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Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films
1. M. H. V. de Voorde and C. Restat, Selection Guide to Organic Materials for Nuclear Engineering (CERN, Geneva, 1972).
4. D. Fink, Fundamentals of Ion-Irradiated Polymers (Springer, New York, 2004).
5. R. L. Fleischer, P. B. Price, and R. M. Walker, Nuclear Tracks in Solids (University of California, Berkeley, 1975).
7. P. J. Goodhew, F. J. Humphreys, and R. Beanland, Electron Microscopy and Analysis (Taylor and Francis, London, 2001).
12. H. Schönbacher, Mod. Plast. 62, 64 (1985).
18. M. Stadermann, S. A. Letts, and S. Bhandarkar, Fusion Sci. Technol. 59, 58 (2011).
19.The 4 MV ion accelerator (National Electrostatics Corporation, model 4UH) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used for both ion irradiation and ion beam analysis. Electron guns manufactured by PHI (model 04-015) and Kimball Physics (model EFG-7F) were used for electron irradiation with energies above and below 1.6 keV, respectively.
22. S. O. Kucheyev, M. Stadermann, S. J. Shin, J. H. Satcher, Jr., S. A. Gammon, S. A. Letts, T. van Buuren, and A. V. Hamza, Adv. Mater. 24, 776 (2012).
26. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
27.For Formvar with composition rad.
28.See, for example, M. A. Meyers and K. K. Chawla, Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009), p. 776.
29.Note that both cases of irradiation with ions and electrons are dominated by electronic (rather than nuclear) energy loss processes; i.e., by excitation of the electronic subsystem of the target rather than by ballistic atomic displacements.
31.Such a threshold dose for film failure during irradiation likely depends on electron energy. Indeed, for 3 MeV He ion irradiation, Formvar films did not fail even for doses as high as .
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