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Design considerations for large-aperture single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Refractive index and the longitudinal mode profiles in the vertical direction for the VCSEL (see Refs. 11–13) (a), zoomed vertical profiles of the refractive index and mode field amplitude for the aperture as a 30-nm thick oxidized aperture layer (x = 0.98) in the high-Al layer (x = 0.9) of the unchanged first period of the top DBR above the cavity (b) and for the aperture layer shifted to the mode node by modification of the first period (c). Aperture position and thickness correspond to the gray areas.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Transverse-longitudinal modes of the VCSEL with the aperture of radius and thickness of the quarter-wavelength high-Al content layer [Fig. 1(b)] for the azimuthal number m = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 (columns from left to right) and the radial number n = 1, 2, and 3 (rows from top to bottom). Field amplitude is shown in map view versus the radial and the vertical coordinates. The aperture edges are shown by the black segments with the corresponding thickness.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Output near-field of the modes as in Fig. 2. Real part of the output field is shown versus the transverse Cartesian coordinates. The radius aperture edge is shown by the black circle.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Output far-field of modes for the same nomenclature as in Figs. 2 and 3. Field intensity is shown versus transverse angular coordinates.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Lifetime (a) and confinement factor (b) of the VCSEL modes (1) for the aperture formed by high-Al content layer in the unchanged top DBR [Fig. 1(b)] and (2) for the aperture formed by high-Al content layer of the thickness 50 nm and (3) 30 nm [Fig. 1(c)] shifted to the mode node. Different point styles correspond to the different azimuthal modes: , 1 (◻), 2 (●), 3 (○), 4 (▲), 5 (△); the same points in the given data set correspond to the different mode radial numbers. Only a part of all the modes is shown for (1).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Refractive index and longitudinal mode profile versus the vertical coordinate in the vicinity of the VCSEL cavity and 30-nm thick oxidized layer (gray area) shifted to the mode node in the third DBR period. (b) Transverse-longitudinal pattern of mode. (c) Near- and (d) far-field transverse pattern of mode. Aperture edges are shown by black segment (b) and circle (c).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Design considerations for large-aperture single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers