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Digital optical phase conjugation of fluorescence in turbid tissue
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FIG. 1.

Principle of phase conjugation of fluorescence. (a) A fluorescent particle is excited and the scattered fluorescence is collected by a PCM. (b) The PCM conjugates the phase of the light and reverses its direction. Thanks to the reciprocity of light propagation, the light refocuses at the position of the particle. Note that the conjugated light matches the wavelength of the emitted light (not that of the excitation light).

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

Simplified schematic of the experiment. The DOPC apparatus is marked with a gray rectangle. Beam expanders and folding mirrors are not shown. , removable beam blocks; , lenses, focal lengths 1000, 200, 1000, 400, 100 mm, respectively; , emission filters; DM, dichroic mirror; P, polarizer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; S, sample; O1−2, 40X microscope objectives; BS, 8% beam sampler; SLM, light modulator; 405 nm, excitation laser; 532 nm, reconstruction laser; and , cameras.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Experimental results. (a) Intensity of the phase conjugated beam at the back surface of the sample. The reconstruction beam refocuses back onto fluorescent bead. (b) Intensity of the same phase conjugated beam, after translating the sample over approximately 10 μm (same color scale as in a). The focus has disappeared because the microscopic scattering properties of the sample are different at this position. (c) Measured binary phase of the wavefront (at ). The raw data were filtered with a 1-pixel radius Gaussian filter to reduce measurement noise and then processed using Eq. (2). Scale bars are 10 μm (a and b) and 1 mm (c).

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/content/aip/journal/apl/101/8/10.1063/1.4745775
2012-08-22
2014-04-24

Abstract

We demonstrate a method for phase conjugating fluorescence. Our method, called reference free digital optical phase conjugation, can conjugate extremely weak, incoherent optical signals. It was used to phase conjugate fluorescent light originating from a bead covered with 0.5 mm of light-scattering tissue. The phase conjugated beam refocuses onto the bead and causes a local increase of over two orders of magnitude in the light intensity. Potential applications are in imaging, optical trapping, and targeted photochemical activation inside turbid tissue.

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Scitation: Digital optical phase conjugation of fluorescence in turbid tissue
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/8/10.1063/1.4745775
10.1063/1.4745775
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