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Time evolution of Te and Γi measured at (a) 100 W (E-mode) and (b) 200 W (H-mode), respectively. Both Te and Γi significantly change in the low ni regime but stay almost unchanged in the high ni regime.
Two-dimensional distributions of nanoparticles under various rf power conditions. (a)-(d) represent the low ni and (e)–(f) represent the high ni regimes. The nanoparticles are distributed throughout the entire plasma region in the low ni regime while they are spread throughout the edge region in the high ni regime.
Nanoparticle growth rate in the low ni (square) and high ni regimes (circle). While the nanoparticle size gradually increases in the relatively low ni regime, it saturates at about 30 nm in the high ni regime.
Morphology of the nanoparticles at (a) 100 W and (b) 200 W. The nanoparticle shape is spherical in the high ni regime due to the rearrangement of atoms by surface heating of the particle, and it is cauliflower-like in the low ni regime due to the agglomeration growth.
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