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(a) SEM picture of a nonlocal spin valve. (b) Nonlocal resistance Rs versus magnetic field μ 0 H for the NLSV device with L = 200 nm, measured at 4.5 K on day 143 after fabrication.
(a) Top view of the shadow mask made by two-layer e-beam resists. (b) Side view of the shadow mask along dashed line 1 in (a). (c) Side view of the shadow mask along dashed line 2 in (a). The zoomed in figure illustrates the magnetic impurities near side surfaces of the Cu channel.
(a) Spin signals ΔRs versus temperature T for as-fabricated (day 0) NLSV devices. (b) Spin signals ΔRs (symbols) versus the distance L between F1 and F2 electrodes at 4.5 K and 295 K and the fitting (solid lines). The vertical axis is on a log scale. (c) The resistivity of the Cu channel versus temperature. (d) The fitted spin diffusion length λs versus temperature T. (e) The fitted spin polarization P versus temperature T and the fitting (described in the text).
The ΔRs versus T plots for a NLSV device (L = 200 nm) measured on day 0, day 17, day 64, and day 143. The inset shows the temporal evolution of ΔRs at 4.5 K for this device.
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