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High-resolution x-ray diffraction diagram from a TiN/Co/ZnO(80 nm)/Ni/Au multilayer stack, deposited by PLD or EBPVD. The scan does not show any secondary phases. The shaded area around the reflection is displayed in the right inset on an enlarged scale. Satellites due to Laue oscillations are clearly resolved for TiN(111) and Co(0002).
(a) Magnetization M of the multilayer stack normalized to the total volume of both ferromagnetic layers and (b) MR for the patterned spin valve device (left inset) with an area of . The data were taken for a ZnO thickness of 20 nm at 2 K as a function of the in-plane magnetic field H for up (closed symbols) and down sweep (open symbols). The MR effect is correlated to the coercive fields of Co and Ni (vertical lines); its maximum of 1.93% appears in the regime where the magnetizations of Co and Ni (red arrows) are aligned antiparallel (grey shaded areas). In (b), the right scale shows the absolute four-point resistance and the right inset the I–V-characteristics of the device.
(a)–(d) Maximum MR as a function of the ZnO thickness at 2 K (a), 50 K (b), 100 K (c), and 200 K (d). The symbols represent the experimental data, and the red lines are fits with the two spin channel model.24,25 (e) Temperature dependence of the resistivity , experimentally determined from a TiN/ZnO/Au reference sample. (f) Spin diffusion length , obtained from the fits in (a)–(d). The dashed line is a guide to the eye. (g) Inverse spin lifetime (blue squares), obtained from via Eq. (2). The solid line corresponds to Eq. (3) with , the dashed line is a guide to the eye. The panel also shows data (grey circles), determined optically by Ghosh et al. 4
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