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Size distribution of dispersed Alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles in water and the TEM image of the Al2O3 nanoparticles.
Experimental configurations to measure dynamic conductivities for nanofluids: (a) the uniform-flux heating mode using an electrical resistance wire heater and (b) the uniform-flux cooling mode using a counter-flow heat exchanger.
-dependence of dynamic thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluids (particle volume fractions of 2% and 4%) flowing in uniformly heating and cooling tubes. The solid lines represent the corresponding static conductivity values, which are independent of Re D . The dashed lines show the curve fittings of the dynamic thermal conductivity data.
Thermophoretic velocities of dispersed particles in convective flowing base fluids under uniform wall-heating and wall-cooling conditions. The dashed lines are the curve fittings of the thermophoretic velocities that are independent of nanoparticle loadings (see Eq. (4)).
Concentration distribution of dispersed particles in radial distances of heating and cooling tube.
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