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Schematics of the proposed model for hierarchically nanotwinned polycrystalline metal in which the TBDPZ and GBDPZ are introduced.
Tensile stress-strain curves of the nanotwinned copper with and without the secondary twin lamellae for a given grain size of 500 nm.
The flow stress of the hierarchically nanotwinned coppers with the grain size of 1000 nm as function of twin spacing in the primary twin lamellae (a) and in the secondary twin lamellae (b).
The yield strength as function of twin spacing with different grain sizes. The critical twin spacings of the primary and secondary twin spacing are 26 nm and 33 nm for dG = 1000 nm, 13 nm, and 16.5 nm for dG = 500 nm, and 6.5 nm and 8.3 nm for dG = 250 nm, respectively.
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