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(a) Schematic of retrace scanning used in KPFM measurements to prevent topographic crosstalk caused by up-and-down motion of the tip across surface corrugations. (b) Ball-and-stick model of thin insulating films grown on Si(111) surface.
Frequency shift () and simultaneously obtained local surface potential () images of thin films grown on Si(111)-() surface acquired with (a) and (b) negatively and (c) and (d) positively terminated tips. The profiles along the green lines are shown in Fig. 3. The acquisition parameters were (a) , A = 22.6 nm, and k = 33.2 N/m; (c) , A = 15.6 nm, and k = 36.8 N/m. KPFM parameters are .
Superimposed (black) and LCPD (green) line profiles along the lines in Figs. 2(b) and 2(d) for (a) negatively and (b) positively charged tips.
Distance dependence of LCPD variation at three different sites on surfaces acquired using active KPFM feedback to nullify existing electrostatic forces at each particular distance for (a) negative and (b) positive tips. The positions where the spectroscopic measurements were performed are indicated in the topographic images in the inset. The origin of the horizontal axis corresponds to the closest distance between the tip and (a) the site and (b) site in data acquisition. The z-axis of the LCPD curves has been shifted to account for topographic correction. The acquisition parameters were (a) , A = 22.1 nm, k = 36.5 N/m, and ; (b) , A = 15.6 nm, k = 36.8 N/m, and .
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