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(a) Schematics of DE actuator in different states. (b)–(d) Mechanical response of DE membranes with electrodes of different stiffness. The red curves correspond to the electric breakdown limit of 200 MV/m. (b) Perfectly compliant electrodes, (c) and (d) solid electrodes, H 0 = 1 mm.
Schematic of the actuator setup: (a) top and (b) side view. (c) Scanning electron microscope image displaying the magnified area corresponding to the cross section of the CB/PDMS composite CE electrode. (d), (e) Top views of the actuator at relaxed state and maximum actuation. (f) Areal strain as a function of time corresponding to the snapshots in (d), (e), the red dashed line represents the voltage protocol during the actuation cycle. (g) Thickness variation of the DE film as a function of time.
Experimental actuation results with solid electrodes. The red circles indicate areal strain reached at maximum applied voltage. (a) Influence of voltage scan rate on the mechanical deformation of actuators with 250% prestrain. The arrows represent the voltage increase (up) and decrease (down) cycle. (b) Mechanical deformation as a function of electric field for actuators with two different prestrain levels and thicknesses.
Comparison of experimental and theoretical results with DE membranes of thickness and prestretch as indicated. Red curves correspond to the electric breakdown limit; red dots on the dotted blue curves represent the maximum achievable strain. A combined electrode thickness of H 2 = 120 μm was used for the simulations.
Mechanical properties of DE (VHB 4910) and CE (CB/PDMS) composites with 3 wt. % CB concentration, cured at 70 °C. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed at a strain rate of ≈4%/s, on 4 dogbone samples for each material, and the maximum achieved strain at failure is reported.
Electromechanical properties of actuators with electrodes of 120 μm combined thickness and different DE film thickness and prestrain levels.
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