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(a) Operation of PAP by a positive poling bias to build the downward quasi-remnant polarization (P ↓) in the graphene/DR1-PMMA device and cause the upshift of Fermi level (EF) correspondingly. The arrow represents the orientation of the dipole moment of a DR1 chromophore. The laser illumination was applied from the top. (b) Operation of PD to erase the built P ↓ and return EF to its original level.
(a) Resistance of a graphene/DR1-PMMA device varied with the gating bias V G. The curve of resistance was shifted after PAP. The magnitude of the shift was proportional to the poling bias V P of PAP. The curve returned to its initial status after PD, indicated by an arrow at the lower right corner. The Fermi level before and after PAP is schematically shown above the curves. (b) Dependence of PAP-induced polarization in the DR1-PMMA on V P, derived by the shift of resistance curves (i.e., the shift of V MAX) with respect to V P with Eq. (2) .
(a) (Upper panel) Temporal response of the resistance of a graphene/DR1-PMMA transistor to PAP and PD, and (lower panel) the concurrent poling bias V P. The resistance of the device was denoted by positions A1 to A7. The blue stripes indicate when the illumination was applied for the 1st PAP (A2 to A3), 2nd PAP (A5 to A6), and PD (A7 to A1). Positions A1, A4, and A7 represent the statuses “0,” “+1,” and “−1.” (b) Schematic of the variation of resistance from positions A1 to A4 with the 1st PAP denoted by the red arrows, from A4 to A7 with the 2nd PAP denoted by the blue arrows, and from A7 to A1 with the PD denoted by the green arrow. V P followed the step-like path in lower panel of Fig. 3(a) . The black arrows above the curves indicate that the curve shifted to the left with the 1st PAP, to the right with the 2nd PAP, and to the left again back to its initial status with PD.
(Upper panel) Temporal response of the resistance of a graphene/DR1-PMMA transistor against the loops of V P (0 ↔ −20 V) without illumination to show the robustness of statuses “0” and “+1,” and (lower panel) the concurrent loops of V P. The PAP was applied to write the status “+1.” The inset is to illustrate the variation of resistance of the device in response to the loop of V P at statuses “0” and “+1.”
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