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(a) Top view SEM image denoting the active area and interfacing TE and BE of a single device; (b) optical microscope image of a crossbar-type array comprising of devices shown in (a).
I-V characteristics of devices based on stoichiometric TiO2 active layer (a) prior electroforming and (b) after electroforming.
SIMS measurements of the two extreme scenarios tested in this work. Sample 1 corresponds to stoichiometric TiO2, while sample 2 was deposited reactively in an O2-rich environment of partial Ar/O2 pressure 2/10 sccm.
I-V characteristics of a Pt/TiO2+x1/Pt RRAM cell, where x1 denotes a low O2 concentration, due to an Ar/O2 partial pressure of 6/6 sccm.
I-V characteristics of a Pt/TiO2+x2/Pt RRAM cell, where x2 denotes a high O2 concentration; with x2 > x1.
Histograms of (a) the threshold voltage (VT) and (b) OFF/ON ratios vs. VT at which the switching occurred for two TiO2 investigated samples deposited under different partial Ar/O2 flows.
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