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Plot of the contact angle with time of exposure for irradiated graphene–ethanol film and graphene-isopropanol film with different light irradiation energies: (a) 254 nm, 2 mW/cm2; (b) 254 nm, 20 mW/cm2.
(a) The reversible hydrophobic and hydrophilic transition of graphene films by alternating pH values from 12 to 2; (b) the shapes of water droplet on corresponding surface under a tilt angle of 0° and 180°, respectively.
(a) The CAs of graphene films as a function of pH values; (b) Fourier transform infrared spectra of graphene films exposed to different pH conditions; (c) mechanism of switchable wetting performance in graphene films at different pH conditions.
The CA and the corresponding cos(θ)V switchably changed when the applied electric field was varied.
The CAs of graphene films varied with the thermal treatment.
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