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Ultra-flat BaTiO3 epitaxial films on Si(001) with large out-of-plane polarization
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Sketch of the heterostructure BTO/LNO/CeO2/YSZ grown on Si(001). (b) RHEED intensity oscillations after growth interruption during 3min when the BTO was around 35 nm thick, and corresponding patterns taken along BTO[110] (c) and BTO[100] (d). (e) 5 × 5 μm2 AFM topographic image.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

θ-2θ XRD scan of a sample with t (BTO) ∼ 220 nm (a) and zoomed region (b), with the vertical line marking the (002) reflection for bulk BTO. (c) Out-of-plane lattice parameter of BTO plotted as a function of thickness.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

XRD measurements, of a sample with t (BTO) ∼ 55 nm, acquired with 2D detector. 2θ-χ detector frames around in-plane sample directions (respect to Si[110]) of ϕ = 0° (a) and ϕ = 45° (b), with the corresponding integrated intensity along χ plotted below. (c) Pole figures around BTO{101}, LNO{101}, YSZ{202}, and {202} reflections of Si and CeO2, together with a schematic cartoon of the heterostructure with the epitaxial relationships.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

TEM cross-section characterization of a sample with t (BTO) ∼ 50 nm: (a) low resolution image showing the whole multilayer. High-resolution images around YSZ/Si (note the presence of the SiOx interfacial layer) (b), CeO2/YSZ (c), LNO/CeO2/YSZ (d), and BTO/LNO (e) interfaces.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Polarization loops for BTO films with thickness t = 55, 138, and 440 nm. The current (I) versus applied electric field (E) curve corresponding to the t = 55 nm film is in the inset. Remnant polarization plotted against thickness t (b) and c-parameter (c) of the films. (d) Coercive field plotted against BTO thickness in a log-log scale. The dashed line is a linear fit with slope −0.73(9), compatible with Ec − t−2/3 scaling.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Bulk lattice parameter of BTO (a parameter), LNO, CeO2, YSZ and Si, and lattice mismatch respect to the closest bottom layer (here lattice mismatch is calculated as f (%) = 100 x (ab − au)/au, where ab and au are the bulk parameters of the bottom and upper layers, respectively). The lattice mismatch between BTO and Si is f = −3.85% and f = −4.90% considering a- and c-axes of BTO (a = 3.994 Å, c = 4.038 Å), respectively.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Ultra-flat BaTiO3 epitaxial films on Si(001) with large out-of-plane polarization