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(a) Experimental setup of the optical cell guidance. The SLM, CCD camera, and mechanical shutter are all controlled by a homemade LabVIEW™ program. The culture dish containing the cells was placed in a temperature-controlled incubator installed on the inverted microscope. (b) The 473 nm optical pattern projected on the bottom of a culture dish. Two static horizontal bars functioned as an optical channel, and the initially single vertical bar would separate into two and move to the two extremities of this I-shaped pattern.
(a) DIC images of the cells guided by the dynamic I-shaped optical pattern. The timing format is hh:mm:ss. The cells were pushed from the central location to the two ends of the optical pattern by the two moving vertical bars. (b) Statistics of cellular responses under various illumination intensities and speeds of the moving vertical bars. For each condition we observed 10 cells. (c) Average horizontal velocity of the cells while the illumination intensity of the optical pattern was 0.2 W/cm2. The data show the mean ± standard deviation ofthe speeds of 10 cells (enhanced online) Video 1. [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4798494.1]doi: 10.1063/1.4798494.1.
(a) Images of the L-shaped optical channel. The timing format is hh:mm:ss. Two moving patterns (indicated by the black arrows) were set in the lower-left and bottom sides of the channel. The DIC images show that this cell made a 90° turn after 16 h of guidance. For a clearer description, we pick the frames from the 5th to the 12th hour to reveal the movements of the cell and the optical “push” at the bottom of the channel that started from the 10th hour. (b) (I) The migration paths of 10 cells without the optical channel. (II) The migration paths of 10 cells with only the static channel. (III) The migration paths of 10 cells with both the static channel and moving patterns. Most of the cells performed a ∼90° turn inside the L-shaped channel within 16 h. (IV) Cell migration speeds calculated from the paths in panels (I), (II), and (III). The data show themean ± standard deviation (enhanced online) Video 2. [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4798494.2]doi: 10.1063/1.4798494.2.
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