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(a) Cross-sectional BF and (b)HAADF TEM micrographs of Ti-top-electrode/Pt-Fe2O3-core-shell-NPs (∼20 nm)/γ-Fe2O3-NPs(∼40 nm)/Pt-bottom-electrode structure (inset of (a): schematic device structure, inset of (b):TEM micrographs of Pt-Fe2O3-core-shell NPs (left) and γ-Fe2O3 NPs (right)).
(a) I-V curves in a form log(I)-V 0.5 of forming operation by sweeping the voltage 0 → −6 V with a compliance current of 10 mA and (b) I-V curve by sweeping the voltage 0 → −3 → +3 → 0 V. Inset replot of I-V curves in a form of log(I)-log(V).
(a) I-V curve of the 2nd sweep of 0 → −3 → +3 → 0 V showing bipolar switching and threshold switching after RESET, (b) I-V curves of the repeated sweeps (3rd–6th), and (c) linear and (d) semilogarithmic I-V curves of the repeated sweeps more up to 25 times.
Schematic illustration of the proposed model of multimode switching; (a) forming step, (b) LRS in threshold switching as applying −V, (c) SET in bipolar switching as applying +V, and (d) RESET in bipolar switching at −V.
Linear and semilogarithmic I-V curves of forming operation by sweeping the voltage 0 → −6 V and threshold switching by voltage sweep 0 → −5 V → 0 V and 0 → +5 → 0 V with a compliance current of 1 mA.
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