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(a) Schematic of the structure and (b) working principle of the proposed MLCC sensing element.
Illustration of the developed re-poling process for treating the MLCC sensor. (a) MLCC de-poling at 300 °C, (b) MLCCs re-poling at 120 °C, and (c) residual charges releasing.
The piezoelectric coefficients (d33) of eight MLCC sensors before and after the simple re-poling process.
Relationship of the measured piezoelectric coefficients with the applied electric field for the MLCCs.
Variation in MLCC sensor measurements with changes in poling duration in a constant electric field of 20 kV/cm DC.
Variation in the sensor response of MLCCs with various aging durations with subsequent re-poling for another 120 min.
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