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(a) Atomic structures of Fe/BaTiO3/Co MFTJ. (b)–(e) Schematics of the four magnetoelectric states of P→M↑↑, P←M↑↑, P→M↑↓, and P←M↑↓, respectively. The lighter color of atoms indicates deeper positions.
The relative Ti-O displacement along the z-axis direction of the supercell for different thicknesses of BaTiO3 films with the magnetization of electrodes being parallel (a) and anti-parallel (b). The legend indicates the initial states.
Equilibrium average polarization as a function of BaTiO3 thin film thickness for four magnetoelectric states. Note that the legend corresponds only to the initial configuration.
Profile of macroscopic planar averaged electrostatic potential energy felt by electrons of the junction for four magnetoelectric states for m = 3, 4, 5, 6. The interfaces are indicated by vertical dashed lines.
Absolute values of magnetic moments (in unit of μ B) of Fe, Co, and Ti atoms at the interfaces for MFTJs with different film thicknesses.
Differential charge density (a)–(d) and differential spin density (e)–(h) in the y-middle plane of Fe/BaTiO3/Co supercell corresponding to four magnetoelectric states, where red refers to positive value and blue refers to negative value.
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