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Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection
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FIG. 1.

EL performance in the non-doped (Device A), MoO3-doped (Device B), and HAT-CN-doped (Device C) OLEDs. (a) Current density-voltage curves. (b) Power efficiency-current density curves. The EL spectra at a current density of 20 mA/cm2 are shown in the inset.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of the undoped NPB, NPB: MoO3 20 vol. %, and NPB: HAT-CN 5 vol. % films with the same thickness of 45 nm on quartz substrates. The inset is the enlarged section near the 500 nm.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Double-logarithmic represenations of J-V characteristics in non-doped (Device E), MoO3-doped (Device F), and HAT-CN-doped (Device G) hole dominated devices at 290 K. Inset is the hole injection efficiency plots in Devices E, F, and G.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

Temperature-dependent J-V characteristics in (a) a non-doped (Device E), (b) MoO3-doped (Device F), and (c) HAT-CN-doped (Device G) hole dominated devices; Corresponding relationships between ln J0/T2 and 1/T in (d) Device E, (e) Device F, and (f) Device G. J0 is obtained by extrapolating in V = 0 from the plots of lnJ versus V1 / 2 .

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

Normalized EL intensity and voltage rise as a function of operational time in the non-doped (Device A), MoO3-doped (Device B), and HAT-CN-doped (Device C) OLEDs at an initial luminance of 1000 cd/m2.

Image of FIG. 6.

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FIG. 6.

The AFM surface images of the single layer films of (a) NPB, (b) NPB: MoO3 20 vol. %, and (c) NPB: HAT-CN 5 vol. %.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/102/15/10.1063/1.4802081
2013-04-15
2014-04-17

Abstract

Comparative studies on inorganic and organic electron acceptors used as p-dopants in N,N′-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are carried out. It demonstrates that 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) doped hole-injecting layer is superior to molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) doped one in device efficiency and stability. Combining with absorption spectral measurement, the effectiveness of a p-doped NPB in OLEDs does not solely rely on the generation of charge-transfer complexes in the doped NPB. The detailed difference between MoO3 and HAT-CN as p-dopants in NPB is further investigated by evaluating the hole injection efficiency, hole barrier height, and surface morphology of the doped films.

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Scitation: Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/102/15/10.1063/1.4802081
10.1063/1.4802081
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