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(a) Schematic of the experimental geometry. (b) Illustration of glucose binding to a nanotube functionalized with pyrene-1-boronic acid. (c) Bound glucose forms a boronate anion complex that has electrostatic effects on the nanotube FET.
Current-gate voltage characteristic from a nanotube FET after each step in the experiment. Data from the as-fabricated nanotube FET is shown in red with triangular markers. The measured curve after functionalization with pyrene-1-boronic acid is shown in black with circle markers. The measured curve after exposure to a 1 mM glucose solution is shown in blue with square markers. Bias voltage is 100 mV.
Normalized reduction in source-drain current for three devices. Regardless of the sequence of droplets added to the sensor, a glucose concentration of 30 mM produces a response of approximately 26% ± 2%.
Sensor response as a function of glucose concentration (blue circles) with the corresponding Hill-Langmuir fit (blue line). Also included are data from three control measurements. In the first, un-functionalized devices show minimal response to glucose exposure (red squares). In the second, devices functionalized with pyrene-1-boronic acid show minimal response upon exposure to lactose solution, used as a negative control (black triangles). Functionalized devices show a null response upon exposure to DI water (green dashed line).
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