The interface between indiumtin oxide and p-type silicon is studied by in situX-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). This is done by performing XPS without breaking vacuum after deposition of ultrathin layers in sequences. Elemental tin and indium are shown to be present at the interface, both after 2 and 10 s of deposition. In addition, the silicon oxide layer at the interface is shown to be composed of mainly silicon suboxides rather than silicon dioxide.
Received 27 October 2012Accepted 20 December 2012Published online 17 January 2013
The authors would like to thank Lasse Vines for performing the SIMS characterization. The work was funded by REC Solar, the Research Council in Norway, through the Nanomat program, and the XPS work in Darmstadt has been supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the collaborative research center SFB 595.