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(a) Schematic of the real-time monitoring of organic thin film growth. (b) Core level emission spectra for Si(111), GaAs(001) and polycrystalline Au. Snapshot spectra (open symbols) are shown superimposed on the scanned energy spectra (solid lines). As 3d spectra were recorded in 250 ms, Si 2p spectra were recorded in 750 ms and Au 4f spectra were recorded in 100 ms. (c) Time evolution of the Au 4f snapshot spectrum before, during and after exposure to the organic flux. The onset of exposure is shown as t = 0 s and the exposure is turned off at t = 850 s.
Attenuation of the substrate core level peaks for SnPc adsorption on Si, GaAs and Au prior to SnPc exposure (region A), during exposure (regions B and C) and after exposure (region D). The molecular orientation within the first layer is illustrated for each substrate. The open symbols represent experimental points extracted from fitting sequences of Si 2p, As 3d, and Au 4f spectra and the large solid symbols for GaAs represent data acquired in conventional photoemission experiments. The solid lines are exponential fits to the real-time data in regions B and D. The final morphology, measured by ambient, non-contact AFM, for a 1 nm SnPc film is shown in the inset for GaAs.
(a) Monte Carlo modeling of the growth of an organic film to provide simulated total electron absorption through this film as a function of time. Also shown is the morphology of the film generated by the model at the end of exposure and following time-dependent molecular re-organization within the grown film. The model reproduces the experimentally observed attenuation and recovery of the transmitted electron intensity for SnPc adsorption and clustering on Au (b). The inset of (b) illustrates schematically the evolving morphology of the organic film.
Growth parameters for SnPc thin films on Si, GaAs, and Au substrates.
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