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(a) Diagram of experimental apparatus with FEM results of a 1 μm × 5 μm BMC (W = 100 nm, MgO = 200 nm) heated by a 10 mW 1.0 μs laser pulse with a 1.0 μm spot diameter in vacuum. The FEM indicates a maximum heating rate of 1.2 × . (b) Optical microscope image of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC with a 1.0 μm diameter heating laser focus. (c) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC after aluminum sample deposition (1 μm × 1 μm × 50 nm). (d) Deflection noise density of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC at room temperature in air (mass resolution of 2.67 fg (Ref. 10 )). (e) Maximum tip deflection of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC for a 167 μs laser heating pulse at different optical powers in air.
(a) Dynamic response of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC to a 167 μs laser heating pulse at different optical powers in air. The response time of the PD is below 100 ns, and we observe a thermal time constant of 36 μs for the microcantilever. (b) We observe heating rates in air exceeding 3.0 × . Deflection peaks observed at the beginning and end of the laser heating pulse are attributed to ablation backpressure from the heating laser. 12–15
(a) Resonant frequency shift of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC due to tungsten ablation and oxidation after five cycles at 800 μW in air. (b) Optical microscope image of a 4 μm × 20 μm BMC before and after high power laser heating. (c) Cross section of FEM dynamic temperature results of a 2 μm × 10 μm BMC heated by a 167 μs 500 μW 1.0 μm spot laser pulse in air.
Comparison of experimental sample temperature to finite element modeling as a function of laser power in air and in vacuum. FEM in air considers h = 100 [W/( )].
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