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Schematic of the metal-nonlinear dielectric grating. (a) Structure of the grating. (b) Strong local electric field enhancement for on-resonance incoming TM light (electric field in the grating direction ). The electric field is shown as blue/white/red for positive/zero/negative amplitude. The intensity shown here is enhanced by a factor of 64.
Second and third harmonic generation efficiency. (a) Second-harmonic generation ( ) using CuCl. (b) Third-harmonic generation ( ) using Ge. The efficiencies of the MNLD grating (black dots) of thickness L and the mapped homogeneous nonlinear dielectric slab (redlines) of thickness are in well agreement and are orders of magnitude higher than the efficiencies of any reference slab with a thickness between L (blue lines) and (blue dashed lines). Throughout the entire input field range plotted, in (a), the efficiency of the grating is 420–460 greater than that of the reference slab with thickness L, and 15500–30000 for reference slab with thickness . In (b), the efficiency of the grating is 1298–2550 greater than that of the reference slab with thickness L, and 628140–652880 for reference slab with thickness .
Hysteresis behavior and power threshold reduction. Black dots denote the numerical results of the MNLD grating containing silicon with a thickness L = 4.24 μm, operating at 10.6 μm for TM-polarized light. Red lines indicate the results for mapped uniform Si slab with thickness . Blue lines indicate the result for a reference uniform silicon slab with thickness of 10.512 μm that exhibits the first onset of bistability. Inset shows a close-up of the hysteresis curve of the MNLD grating and the scaled mapping.
Enhancement of optical nonlinearity in dissipative grating. Orders of magnitude enhancement of optical nonlinearity can still be achieved in grating of lossy metal. The system is silver grating containing second-order nonlinear material CdSe, with thickness L = 16.8 μm, operating at 10.6 μm. Efficiency enhancement is 14.3 compared to the uniform CdSe reference slab with thickness , and 288 compared to the uniform slab with thickness .
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