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(a) Experimental setup. (b) The image at t = 0 s depicts that no worms are trapped prior to the application of voltage. (c) As can be seen at t = 30 s, the incoming worms in the flow are trapped.
(Top left) Trapping efficiency shows a decreasing trend with an increasing flow rate, whereas enrichment shows an increasing trend with increasing flow rate (top right). (Bottom) Temporal monitoring of C. elegans at first bubble column at a flow rate of 0.14 ml/min indicating saturation.
(a) shows both big and small C. elegans trapped at the bubble at 190V (b) upon reduction of voltage to 100 V the bigger worm escapes leaving behind the smaller worm (c) the smaller worm ultimately escapes when the voltage is further reduced to 67 V. (Bottom) The graph shows a relationship between the size of the C. elegans and the threshold voltage at which the worms escape the bubble trap.
The SRF and the worm propulsive force are plotted a function of the worm length. A fitting parameter, bubble oscillation amplitude, is used to calculate the SRF. Respectively, SRF 1, 2, 3 are based on 8, 5, 2 μm of bubble oscillation amplitude.
A single C. elegans was manipulated to travel along a square loop by turning the acoustic field on and off with proper timing control.
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