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Experimental setup of the TXM (a) at Beamline32-ID-C of APS including the furnace unit lifted up to show the MLCC sample (b).
Microstructural evolutions during sintering. Note that Au particles were used both for image alignment in the reconstruction and for calibrating the temperature in the furnace.
3D reconstruction and rendering: top view of the morphology of the electrodes (a) green state; (b) partially sintered at 900 °C; (c) partially sintered at 1100 °C (E1); and (d) partially sintered at 1100 °C (E2).
Radial and axial strains in dielectrics layers, radial strains in electrodes as function of time (E1 stands for 1st electrode, E2 for 2nd electrode, D1 for 1st dielectric, and D2 for 2nd dielectric).
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