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(a) Schematic of a trilayer. (b) Measured resistance and (S21 transmission)−1 versus temperature at DC and 6 GHz of a 4/10/4 nm Ti/TiN/Ti trilayer. (c) Measured TC at DC of trilayers vs TiN thickness for various Ti thicknesses.
(a) TC vs position for the multi-layer stoichiometric TiN/Ti/TiN (black) and mono-layer (red) sub-stoichiometric TiN based thin films. The multi-layer has 10× less variation in TC . The lines are a guide to the eye. (b) and (c) Corresponding contour plots of measured TC in stoichiometric multi-layer and sub-stoichiometric mono-layer wafers. (d) Normalized sheet resistance vs position for both a trilayer TiN/Ti/TiN film (black) and a sub-stoichiometric monolayer (red). The resistivity variation in the multi-layer is likely due to film thickness variations, while the nominally identical thickness variations in the sub-stoichiometric film is dominated by the compositional changes in resistivity. 9 (e) Measured S21 vs frequency curves from separate center (red) and edge (black) dies. The resonances differ by or ∼1%. Known inhomogeneities in the etch resulting in deeper trenches in the resonator gaps near the edge of the wafer 11,22 may also contribute to the variations in resonator frequency.
Photon counting statistic of the 1.3 K trilayer LEKID in response to 1550 nm photons.
Low temperature properties of RF resonators from TiN/Ti multi-layers and a sub-stoichiometric film. For films that were not patterned into resonators, no Qi data are available, and penetration depths (marked with an asterisk) were calculated from the resistivity measured at 4 K. The kinetic sheet inductance is calculated from , where is the BCS gap and t is the film thickness. 2
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