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(a) Sample preparation and geometry details. (b) SEM micrograph of sample backside showing FIB milled observation window. (c) SEM micrograph of observation window edge. The window thickness is less than 100 nm. (d) Experimental diffraction pattern image of the PMN-PT (011) substrate with crystallographic axes indexed. (e) In focus bright field image of observation window with relevant crystallographic axes indexed.
(Left) Piezoelectric strain data for the PMN-PT (011) substrate as afunction of applied electric field for two orthogonal in-plane directions (01-1) and (100) and the strain anisotropy Δε.
(a–c) Strain gradients in the nickel thin film at various voltages as calculated by COMSOL simulations, corresponding to strain states A–C in Fig. 2 , respectively. Color bar corresponds to strain anisotropy Δε = εy − εx. White and black arrows schematically show strain distribution and magnetization direction, respectively.
(a–d) Unipolar piezoelectric strain on Nickel thin film/PMN-PT (011) heterostructure observed with Lorentz TEM corresponding to strain states A–D in Fig. 2 , respectively. Magnetization of domains are indicated with arrows. (a) 0 V before applied voltage, (b) 80 V (0.16 MV m−1), (c) 160 V (0.32 MV m−1), and (d) 0 V.
(a, d–h) Reversing electrical polarization procedure on magnetoelectric heterostructure observed in Lorentz TEM corresponding to strain states A, D-H in Fig. 2 , respectively. (a) 0 V the substrate is pre-poled with a positive electric field. (d) −40 V, −0.08 MV m−1 just prior to the coercive field of the PMN-PT. (e)−80 V −0.16 MV m−1 just after passing the coercive field. (f) −160 V, −0.32 MV m−1. (g)−80 V, −0.16 MV m−1. (h) 0 V, 0 MV m−1.
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