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Resistivity versus time for homogeneous binary oxide film (blue) and 80 nm MoO3−x/Al2O3 ALD film (green) held at a constant field of 25 MV/m. Homogenous binary oxide film resistivity decays by ∼1000× in 1 day; MoO3−x/Al2O3 ALD film remains stable over 4 days (<3% drop).
Resistivity versus precursor ratio for MoO3−x/Al2O3 ALD films. Resistivity can be customized over seven orders of magnitude by varying the precursor ratio.
(a) Cross sectional TEM images of our film, showing the multilayer structure of the film. (b) Plan-view TEM image showing the nanoclusters of molybdenum oxide. It is likely the result of the metallic Mo deposition occurring in Volmer-Weber mode. The size of the nanoclusters was approximately 2–3 nm.
IV curves for MoO3−x/Al2O3 ALD films with thicknesses ranging from 37 nm to 90 nm prepared using 8% Mo plotted on a FP scale (a) and a log-log scale (b). Data are consistent with FP emission.
(a) Arrhenius plot of IV data at different applied electric field. From the slopes, the barrier height as a function of the applied field can be extracted (b).
(a) Schematic diagram of potential wells for two, widely spaced defect states. (b) As the distance between defects decreases, the potentials wells merge and lower the voltage barrier ΔE. This mechanism explains the exponential decrease in resistivity versus MoO3−x nanocluster density.
Electron beam images of the DPG magnified onto a phosphor screen. The main image is from a DPG coated with the MoO3−x/Al2O3 charge-drain film. The inset is an image obtained from a DPG coated with an old homogenous binary oxide film (inset).
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