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Cross-sectional schematic of TSV structure composed of (a) circular geometry or (b) annular geometry. A 150 nm thick BOX layer and Si (001) substrate lie underneath the 88 nm thick SOI layer. The overlying, blanket Si3N4 capping layer is not included.
Plot of the depth-averaged strain distribution, ε33, measured by x-ray microbeam diffraction and simulated using FEM modeling as a function of distance from the edge of a (a) circular and (b) annular TSV feature containing copper metallization.
Plot of simulated, depth-averaged radial (ε11), tangential (ε22), and out-of-plane strain distributions (ε33) in the SOI region as a function of distance from the edge of the circular TSV using FEM modeling.
Comparison of the depth-averaged strain distribution, ε33, as a function of distance from the center of an annular TSV feature with and without copper metallization, revealing the extent and magnitude of strain generated by the liner materials.
Cu in-plane and out-of-plane stress values for 50 μm pitch, circular and annular TSV features measured using x-ray diffraction.
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