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(a) Reciprocal space mapping (103) diffraction peaks of (011)-LSMO/PMN0.7PT0.3 epitaxial heterostructures. (b) The schematic of the resistance measurement with the field-effect configuration.
The resistance change (up) is a function of electric field. The strains along the (middle) and  (bottom) directions vs electric field with saturated poling of the PMN0.7PT0.3 substrate. ΔR/R = ((R(E)-R(0))/R(0), where R(E) and R(0) are the resistance of the LSMO film under an electric field E and zero, respectively.
The strains states along the  and direction with partially positive poling from negatively poled state of the PMN0.7PT0.3 substrate. The arrows show the cycling direction of the electric field.
(a) The resistance change hysteresis under the negatively and positively partially poled states. The right axis shows the corresponding resistance. The gray solid circles mark the remnant resistance states “0,” “1,” and “2.” (b) The corresponding total in-plane strain hysteresis by cycling negative and positive electric field. The remnant strain states “A,” “B,” and “C” are also marked.
(a) The non-volatile resistance states “0” and “1” are switched by a sequence of larger positive pulses (up) field +3.27 kV/cm and −1.72 kV/cm. (b) The non-volatile resistance states “0” and “2” are switched by a sequence of stronger negative pulses −3.27 kV/cm and +1.31 kV/cm. (c) The ternary non-volatile resistance states “0,” “1,” and “2” are switched among each other under the designed pulsing sequence (up) combined by +3.27 kV/cm, −1.72 kV/cm, −3.27 kV/cm, and +1.31 kV/cm.
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