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Space- and time-resolved Seebeck and Nernst voltages in laser-heated permalloy/gold microstructures
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Spatially resolved measurements of the Seebeck effect using scanning laser heating (spot size ). (a) Reflectivity image of the structure. (b) Voltage measured between adjacent Au wires [as indicated in (a)] as a function of laser spot position. (c) Thermovoltage profile (circles: experimental data, solid line: simulation data) of Py wire along the dashed line shown in (b). (d) Reflectivity image and (e) and (f) thermovoltages (smaller scan area) when measuring the voltage drop along the Py wire [as indicated in (d)].

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

AMR and ANE measured on a 4 μm wide Py wire using Vx and Vy . (a) Measurement geometry with laser spot positions used in (c) and (d) (spot size ). (b) in the absence of laser heating, derived from Vx measured at as a function of applied field H [ ], indicating magnetization reversal at . (c) ANE signal and (d) as a function of H taken at . Small black arrows indicate the sweep direction.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Time-resolved measurement of ANE and Seebeck effect. (a) Measurement setup (spot size ). (b) Voltage drop for for field orientations +H and −H [see (a)]. For clarity, the curves are offset by 2 mV. Field-independent (c) and field-dependent (d) part of the data shown in (b). Symbols in (c) show the simulated temperature rise at the Py/Au thermocouple (data are fitted to the experimental data using one common scaling factor).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

ANE-based magnetic imaging of magnetization reversal in a 10 μm wide Py wire (spot size ). (a) Reflectivity image ( ). is measured along the Py wire as a function of laser spot position. (b) Field orientation ( ) and laser spot scan direction. (c) and (d) Sequence of images with [see Fig. 2(c) ] for both sweep directions of the magnetic field, illustrating the magnetization reversal.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) and (b) Field-dependent line scans: horizontal lines represent the ANE voltage as a function of laser spot position (scanned along the center of a Py wire) for different magnetic fields H (y-axis) close to the reversal field. (b) Same measurement with increased laser power. (c) and (d) Local hysteresis loops reflecting my measured at positions c and d indicated in (a).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Space- and time-resolved Seebeck and Nernst voltages in laser-heated permalloy/gold microstructures