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VO2 properties and the hybrid SPP-VO2 switch. (a) The temperature-dependent resistivity, ρ, of the VO2 films. The critical temperature is about 340 K. (b) The real, n, and imaginary, k, parts of the VO2 refractive index measured by ellipsometry. SEM images of (c) the device cross-section labeled with the layer thicknesses and (d) the hybrid SPP-VO2 switch with an integrated heater. The simulated electric field intensities of the SPP-VO2 waveguide mode when the temperature of the VO2 layer is (e) and (f) .
The temperature and refractive index profiles. (a) The simulated temperature profile along y at the mid-line of the SPP-VO2 waveguide under an applied current of 180 mA. (b) The refractive index contours of the VO2 film near the edge of the hybrid SPP-VO2 waveguide computed using the temperature in (a). The regions with insulating and metallic VO2 phases are marked with arrows. The fully metallic VO2 region is directly under the heater. (c) The surface reflectivity change, , measured in the vicinity of the heater and SPP-VO2 waveguide (estimated position marked by white lines).
The static transmission and power consumption characteristics. (a) The normalized transmission of devices with varying lengths of SPP-VO2 waveguides (L) vs. input current. ER = 24.1 dB is reached when . For , the measured ER was limited by background noise. (b) The measured IL and ER of the SPP-VO2 waveguides vs. L. Linear fits of IL andER are included. (c) The spectra of IL and ER of the device. (d) The current and electrical power required for the ERs in (b) vs. L.
The dynamic switching characteristics of the L = 10 device. (a) (left axis) The time-dependent transmission when a (right axis) triangular voltage pulse with a ramp duration of ms was applied at the heater. (b) Transmission-voltage hysteresis of (a). (c) The optical transmission when the ramp duration of the voltage is reduced. (d) The transmission change, , vs. .
Comparison of SPP-VO2 switches with other recently demonstrated electrically driven plasmonic and dielectric optical switches.
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