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Experimental setup including assigned material directions
(a) P–E hysteresis loops of the PZT-5H. (b) Strain components versus electric field.
Piezoresponse of PZT-5H under bipolar fields: (a) longitudinal strain (d 33 effect) (b) lateral strain (d 31 effect).
(a) Schematic of the d31 measurement setup. (b) In-plane displacement of PZT-5H wafer.
DIC and laser interferometer techniques measuring strain-electric butterfly loop (Vpp = 600 V)
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