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Local piezo-response force microscopy amplitude (a) and phase (b) images for ∼10 nm thick heteroepitaxial BTO films on the Pt underlayer, in which blue (dark)/yellow (bright) square areas were poled upward/downward by V = ±2.5 V; piezoresponse amplitude (c) and phase (d) hysteresis loops taken for 3 nm thick BTO layer through the top Cr electrode.
HAXPES spectra taken from Cr/BTO(001) and BTO(100)/Pt(001) bi-layers as well as from reference Pt, BTO, and Cr bulk samples to determine valence band offsets in the Cr/BTO/Pt heterostructure.
Determined electronic band line-up and subsequently reconstructed potential energy profile in the Cr/BTO/Pt heterostructure with the BTO ferroelectric layer polarized toward Pt.
(a) Typical experimental I-V characteristics (dots) recorded on the Au/Cr/BTO/Pt ferroelectric tunnel junction for different polarization states and the fitting curves (colored thin lines) assuming the tunneling model (formula (2)) (inset: AFM image of the prepared junctions); (b) reconstructed electrostatic potential profiles across the Pt/BTO/Cr junction for different ferroelectric polarization states: solid (red line) - downward, dashed (blue line) - upward.
Summary of the reconstructed electronic band line-up and electrostatic potential energy barrier steps in the Cr/BTO/Pt heterostructure (Eg = 4.3 eV).
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