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Structural analyses of 20 uc thick NGO films grown at various deposition temperatures; (a) RHEED intensity recorded during the growth and (b) corresponding final diffraction patterns; (c) (103)-reciprocal space map for the sample grown at 970 K; (d) ( ) scans around the (002) STO substrate peak. (The dashed lines denote the STO substrate only.)
Stoichiometry of NGO thin films grown at various deposition temperatures in comparison to their electrical properties; (a) Ga/Nd ratio; (b) sheet resistance of 8 uc (squares) and 20 uc (circles) thick NGO layers on STO; (c) corresponding carrier density and (d) mobility at 300 K.
HTEC characteristics of the NGO/STO heterostructure (filled symbols); (a) a thermally stable interface contribution is found for 850 K–1000 K; open symbols and dashed line correspond to the bare STO substrate (950 K); (b) comparison of the HTEC of the NGO/STO heterostructure at 950 K before (filled symbols) and after (open symbols) additional measurement cycles at 1050 K and 1100 K; the dashed line corresponds to STO single crystal data. (Inset: XRD data before and after the HTEC measurement.)
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