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(a) Schematic illustration of the dressed-photon–phonon etching. ((b) and (c)) Surface height profiles of a (001) GaN substrate (b) before and (c) after 30-min irradiation with CW light at a wavelength of 532 nm in a Cl2 atmosphere at 200 Pa. The roughness average, Ra , decreased from 0.23 nm to 0.14 nm.
(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed two-dimensional hierarchical surface roughness measure (THM). ((b) and (c)) The two-dimensional distribution of the HES ( ) (b) before and (c) after the DPP etching.
(a) The THM, , based on experimental results for GaN surfaces. (b) Evaluation of THM, , with respect to the calculated surface profiles derived through the proposed DPP etching model for different values of the maximum physical scale, .
(a) The hierarchical nature of near-field interactions based on two-sphere model where the radii are, respectively, given by and . (b) Simulated time evolution of the roughness average (Ra ) with respect to the maximum physical scale in the DPP etching model.
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