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Experimental setup for studying chemical energy released in ablation of aluminum in a chemically active ambient gas.
The ratio Etot /Einc as a function of laser fluence in ablation of aluminum in oxygen, air, and argon at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum.
SEM images of the sample surface. (a) A mechanically polished surface before laser irradiation. (b) and (c) A typical surface modification after 1 shot at F = 0.054 J/cm2. Surface nanodamages occur preferably on sharp edges of scratches and pits available on the sample surface before the laser irradiation. (d) The surface nanostructural pattern after 20 laser shots at F = 0.054 J/cm2.
SEM image of the ablated material deposit produced around the ablation crater in argon at F = 8.7 J/cm2. The deposit consists of nanoparticles.
The EDS spectra of the ablated material deposits around the ablation craters produced in argon and oxygen. The spectra show a significantly larger amount of oxygen in the deposit produced in oxygen as compared with that in argon. The oxygen mass fraction is 3.7% and 42% for argon and oxygen, respectively.
The ratio of the released chemical energy to the incident laser pulse energy, Echem /Einc , as a function of laser fluence.
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