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(a) Side-view of the beam geometry of the four-beam interference lithography system; (b) corresponding difference wave vectors in reciprocal space; (c) and (d) contour plots of the resulting interference pattern with different initial phase shifts of δ1 = 0° and δ2 = 180°. The green outline highlights the iso-intensity minima that are used to generate the pattern in the negative tone photoresist.
(a)-(d) A selection of possible triplet motive shapes achieved by varying one (a, b), two (c), or three (d) polarization angles. Green outlines highlight iso-intensity minima in (a, b) which would create dot-pattern in negative-tone photoresist. Yellow outlines in (c, d) highlight the iso-intensity maxima that would create hole-patterns. White triangles indicate the unit cell of periodicity.
(a) Quasi-quadruplet and (b) quadruplet motive shape achieved by varying two and three polarization angles, respectively. The white squares are used to indicate the unit cell of the periodicity.
SEM images of plasmonic templates with the following symmetries: (a) simple hexagonal lattice, (b) twin motive, (c) triplet motive by varying polarization in one beam, (d) triplet motive by varying polarization of two beams, and (e) quasi-quadruplet. (f) and (g) demonstrate down forming into gold nanoparticle arrays. All scale bars are 1 μm. Blue arrows indicate the position and number of the nanogaps within the unit cell. Yellow arrows point out the relative gap orientation with angles indicated. Note that the polarization direction of the surface plasmon field would be orthogonal to the yellow arrows.
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