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XPS spectra of C1s level in graphene. Binding energy of sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbons is 284.6 eV (±0.1 eV) and 285.3 eV (±0.1 eV), respectively. C1–C5 indicate the carbon atoms in PMMA associated at 285.7 eV (±0.1 eV), 286.8 eV (±0.2 eV), 289.0 eV (±0.2 eV), and 289.7 eV (±0.2 eV).
Change in atomic percentages as a function of annealing temperature. The atomic percentage of PMMA indicates summation of the atomic percentage involved by diverse functional groups in PMMA. The points at 25 °C indicate the atomic percentages of carbons in the transferred graphene before annealing.
Raman spectra of the transferred graphene samples before and after annealing (left) and changes in the G and the 2D peaks as a function of the annealing temperature (right). Except for 100 °C annealing, both peaks have a tendency to exhibit a blue-shift resulting from oxidation as the annealing temperature increases.
Delta position value of the G and the 2D peaks (left) and changes in I2D/IG and ID/IG (right) as a function of annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature changes, a dominant effect between reducing p-doping (red-shift) due to the decomposition of carboxyl functional group and p-doping (blueshift) due to the oxidation augmented by defects results from the high temperature annealing process alters.
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