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Electromagnetic system for the wireless control of microjets in three-dimensional space. Insets in the bottom right corner show a microjet moving towards a reference position (crosshair) under the influence of its propulsion force and the controlled magnetic fields. The upper left inset shows the propulsion mechanics of the microjet. The bottom left inset shows a reservoir for the hydrogen peroxide that contains microjets. The electromagnetic system consists of two sets of orthogonal arrays of iron-core ① electromagnetic coils ②. The upper set has 45∘ with respect to z-axis and similar configuration to the lower set (upper right inset). Motion of microjets is tracked using two microscopic vision systems (③ and ④) with auto-focusing and adjustable illumination ⑤.
Representative closed-loop motion control result of a self-propelled microjet in three-dimensional space. The red-dashed circle indicates the region of convergence in which the microjet is localized using the controlled magnetic fields. The red arrows and the blue circles indicate the direction of the controlled jet and the reference positions, respectively.
Trajectory of a controlled microjet towards three reference positions (blue circles). The insets show representative snapshots of the controlled microjet. The red arrows indicate the direction of motion of the microjet. Scale bar: 250 μm.
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