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(a) Raman spectra of pristine graphene and α-beam irradiated graphene samples. (b) D/G peak, (c) G peak position, (d) width of the G peak, and (e) G vs 2D peak position are plotted for pristine and irradiated graphene samples.
Contact potential maps (bottom) and corresponding topography images (top) obtained using KPFM. The scan size is 570 × 570 nm2 and the contrast for all of the surface potential images was adjusted to an identical scale.
(a) Distribution of the CPD of Kelvin signals in the various graphene samples. (b) Peak positions of the CPD histograms. The inset shows a schematic of the energy diagram for the tip–graphene system. Evac is the energy level in a vacuum.
X-ray photoelectron spectra for (a) valence band and (b) core level for the pristine and irradiated graphene (using 1 × 1015 cm−2). The photon energies used are 72.5 eV for the valence band edge and 650 eV for the core level. The C1s PES signal of the pristine graphene comprised three peaks corresponding to C–C, C–O, and C–OO. C=O is observed only in the irradiated graphene.
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