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(a) θ–2θ XRD patterns and rocking curves (insets) of the SDC/MgO and (b) of the SDC/STO samples. (c) AFM topography of SDC on MgO (on a 300 nm square area). Some grains are highlighted by the white contours. (d) AFM topography of SDC on STO (on a 400 nm square area). (e) ESM hysteresis loop height map of SDC on MgO (same area of (c)) at 35 V. The same grains are highlighted by the white contours. (f) ESM hysteresis loop height map of SDC on STO (same area) at 35 V. (g) ESM hysteresis loops for different regions of SDC/MgO marked by numbers in (e). (h) ESM hysteresis loops for different regions of SDC/STO marked by numbers in (f).
(a) Some hysteresis loop area maps of SDC on MgO measured at different dc bias (blue is the minimum and red the maximum loop area). (b)Dc waveform applied to the AFM tip at each single point of the map. (c)Bias dependent behavior of the average hysteresis loop area measured at different regions having maximum and minimum loop area, as those indicated by the arrows in (a). On the abscissa we report the maximum voltage of the waveform shown in (b). (d) AFM topography of the area chosen for FORC measurements: the correspondence between surface features (grains and grain boundaries) and electrochemical activity in panel (a) is noticeable.
(a) Typical DESM relaxation signal averaged on five neighboring points on the surface of SDC on MgO. Both the applied dc steps and the DESM response are reported. (b) Comparison of the relaxation behavior between two different regions of the sample surface marked in panel (c), grain interior B and grain boundary A features, at the maximum voltage slice 35 V (indicated by arrow in (a)). The phenomenological fit is also shown. (c) Spatial variation over the whole sample surface of the fit coefficient (τ) of the relaxation curves at voltage slice 35 V.
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