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Measured EL spectrum obtained from a CIGS solar celland the external quantum efficiency calculated from with the help of Eq. (1) (solid line). Open triangles show the directly measured and the EL spectrum calculated from the experimental .
Electroluminescence (solid lines) and electro-modulated photoluminescence (open circles) spectra from a CIGS solar cell under different current injection conditions at temperature T = 300 K. (a) Spectra taken before light soaking (J = 35.85, 7.31 mA/cm2), (b) spectra after light soaking for 3 h at an elevated temperature, T LS = 400 K (J = 26.01, 6.82 mA/cm2).
(a) Voltage dependence of the omni-spectral EL before/after LS (open/full squares), and dependence of the EM signal on the open circuit voltage V OC (open filled circles) obtained from the same CIGS solar cell as in Figs. 2 and 3 . The radiative ideality factor = 0.96 results from the fit (red solid line) to after and before LS. (b) Short circuit current density vs. open circuit voltage (J SC/V OC) measured simultaneously to the EM measurements and current density vs. voltage (J/V) measurement carried out simultaneously to the EL measurements before (open symbols) and after LS (full symbols). The (non-radiative) ideality = 1.36 and 1.25 (before/after LS) is obtained from the J SC/V OC characteristics and corresponds to the classical diode ideality factor.
(a) Dependence of the omni-spectral EL before/after light soaking (LS) (open/full squares) on the current density J, and dependence of the EM signal (open/full circles) on the short circuit current density J SC. The slopes Γ of the curves follow from the ratio between non-radiative and radiative ideality factors from Fig. 4 according to Eq. (5) . (b) External luminescence quantum efficiencies calculated from and and calculated from with the help of Eq. (6) . The straight lines are directly calculated from the two slopes Γ in (a) and correspond to Γ-1 in (b),respectively.
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