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(a) Major hysteresis loops measured by SQUID magnetometry atdifferent temperatures, with 300 K VSM measurements of the individual Co/Ni and Co/Pd stacks shown in the inset, and corresponding (b) GMR of the (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) PSV. The vertical dashed line highlights the GMR peak position below 100 K. For both measurements the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film.
(top) FORCs and (bottom) contour plots of ρ for the (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) PSV for (a), (c) 300 K and (b), (d) 77 K. The horizontal axes of the contour plots are aligned with those of the FORCs, and the contours are normalized to the same scale (c). Inset in (a) shows a MFM image at 300 K after ac demagnetization.
Major loop (blue triangles) along with representative FORCs and schematics of the reversal behavior at 77 K. The −0.6 kOe FORC (filled squares) has a minor loop switching “corner” corresponding to Co/Ni reversal. The −1.1 kOe FORC at 77 K (open squares) is similar to the 300 K FORC (dashed line), indicating a return to vertically correlated reversal. Laterally correlated reversal returns near negative saturation (blue triangles).
(a) Major loops and (b) GMR curves at different temperatures for a (Co/Pd)4/Ni/Co/Cu/(Co/Ni)4 PSV. Inset in (a) is a MFM micrograph at 300 K after ac demagnetization.
HE and J as a function of temperature.
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