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Time evolution of the photo-excitation spectra for different time delays showing the changes in the electron distribution due to the absorbed energy from the IR pump pulse. (Inset) Photo-excitation of the electrons from below the Fermi level to the continuum.
(a) F-D distribution for two different electron temperatures, Te , 300 K and 2000 K. (b) Electron distribution above the Fermi level probed at 570 fs after the excitation and modeled as the difference Δf(E,T) of two F-D distributions (inset in log scale) with an elevated Te of 2000 ± 100 K and 300 K. (c) Temporal evolution of the electron energy density Eint (Te ) fitted with an exponent with a time constant τ = 1.34 ± 0.85 ps, restricted at τ >500 fs delays, where the internal thermalization of the electronic system is established. The error bars represent the uncertainty in the determination of the internal energy of the electronic system calculated using the temperatures obtained from the F-D fit of the excitation spectrum.
Temporal evolution of the electron, Te , and lattice, Tl , temperatures based on the TTM (red lines). The measured cooling rate of the electronic system is shown with black dots. The error bars represent the errors of the fit of the F-D function to the photo-excited electron distribution above EF .
Energy transfer rate G(Te,Tl ) from electrons to lattice as a function of their temperature difference fitted to a linear relation of T (solid red line; 95% confidence interval as purple shaded area) with the slope g as an adjustable parameter. The vertical error bars are related to the error of the fitted G(Te,Tl ), while the horizontal error bars are Te estimations. The blue dashed line shows the dependence on the fifth power of the temperature (95% confidence intervals in yellow dotted-dashed lines).
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