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(a) Schematic of the in situ nanoindentation setup inside a TEM; (b) a low-magnification TEM image of the initial position of an individual MWCNT against an indenter tip may be precisely adjusted with piezo-driven displacement (c) a high-resolution TEM image of the MWCNT.
(a) Snapshots of in situ axial compression of an individual MWCNT under nanoindentation and (b) corresponding force-displacement curve [labels (I)-(IV) denote the different deformation stages of the MWCNT under nanoindentation and correspond to the left hand-side snapshots].
Variation in force with axial compressive displacement for an individual MWCNT at different strain rates.
(a) Formation energy of buckling for representative CNTs as a function of various strain rates [note that labels (I)–(III) denote different buckling morphologies for the (4,4) SWCNT, (4,4)/(9,9) DWCNT, and (4,4)/(9,9)/(14,14)/(19,19) MWCNT at higher strain rate, respectively, under nanoindentation and correspond to atomistic configurations presented in (b)]. (b) Typical buckling configurations of representative CNTs. The dotted panels show the cross-sections at the kink area.
Mechanical characterization of various end fixings in the CNT. Here K is the effective-length factor, ε cr the critical strain, and E Young's modulus.
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