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(a) XRD 2θ-ω scans of 45 nm as-grown and annealed LCMO/NGO(100) films. The inset shows schematic of the LCMO and NGO unit cells, with the lattice constants and the (420) and (404) diffraction planes denoted. The strain state was analyzed via in-plane lattice mismatches in orthorhombic Pbnm index. (b) RSMs on (420) and (404) reflections from the 45 nm annealed film, with the open and solid arrows denoting the reflections from the substrate and film, respectively. (c) AFM images (3 × 3 μm2) from the 15 nm as-grown and annealed films, with the surface height of the annealed film analyzed. (d) AFM and SEM images of the 90 nm annealed films, noting that the -oriented cracks were observed and marked by arrows.
(a) ZF ρ-T curves of the 15 and 45 nm as-grown and annealed films. (b)–(d) ρ-T curves from the 45 nm annealed film in FC-FW, ZFC-FW, and FC(3 T)-ZFW processes, respectively. In (d), the ZFW and FC(3 T) curves were inset for comparison. All the curves were measured with H//a and I//b, with solid arrows denoting the cooling/warming processes. The open arrows marked the various phase transition temperatures.
FC-FW ρb-T and ρc-T curves measured from (a) 15 nm, (b) 30 nm, (c) 45 nm, and (d) 60 nm films. The left panel illustrates the current directions with respect to the crystal axes. (e) FC(3 T)-ZFW ρb (ρc )-T curves of the 60 nm film. The ZFC-ZFW curves were also plotted in dash lines for comparison. (f) T-dependent AR during FC-FW and FC(3 T)-ZFW.
(a) M-H loops of the 60 nm film measured after ZFC and FC(3 T) to 70 K with H//b and H//c. (b) RCs on NGO(400) of the 60 nm film at different T. The inset shows possible twin structure below T AFI, and the PS pattern with -oriented FM filaments (black lines) embedded in the AFI background (blue or light gray).
(a) FC-FW ρb (ρc )-T curves measured from the 90 nm film at 0, 1.5, and 3 T. (b) The curves normalized by ρc at 320 K. The inset shows schematic of the PS patterns of the 90 nm film. Above T AFI, the film only has insulating line cracks (white lines) along , and below T AFI the -oriented FM filaments (black lines) emerge in the AFI background (blue or light gray).
(a) Illustrations of Pt electrodes (gray) deposited on the 5 × 5 mm2 films and of the various H and I orientations for measurements of AR (solid or green) and AMR (dashed or orange). (b) (FC-)FW ρb -T and ρc -T curves measured from the 45 nm film at 1.5 T, with H along a, b, or c axis. Based on these curves, T-dependent AR (c) and AMR (d) were calculated. (e) Top panel: c-projected octahedral configurations of the LCMO unit cells. Above T AFI (right) the unit cells are orthorhombic with JT-distorted octahedra, while below T AFI (left) the shear-mode octahedral deformation leads to a monoclinic domain structure. The schematic PS patterns were also inserted. Bottom panel: schematic of the PS structures. The dark (gray) polygons denote the FM phase at the domain boundaries, and the light polygons denote the AFI phase.
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