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Silicon carbide photonic crystal cavities with integrated color centers
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The recent discovery of color centers with optically addressable spin states in 3C silicon carbide (SiC) similar to the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond has the potential to enable the integration of defect qubits into established wafer scale device architectures for quantum information and sensing applications. Here, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of photonic crystal cavities in 3C SiC films with incorporated ensembles of color centers and quality factor (Q) to mode volume ratios similar to those achieved in diamond. Simulations show that optimized H1 and L3 structures exhibit Q's as high as 45 000 and mode volumes of approximately . We utilize the internal color centers as a source of broadband excitation to characterize fabricated structures with resonances tuned to the color center zero phonon line and observe Q's in the range of 900–1500 with narrowband photoluminescence collection enhanced by up to a factor of 10. By comparing the Q factors observed for different geometries with finite-difference time-domain simulations, we find evidence that nonvertical sidewalls are likely the dominant source of discrepancies between our simulated and measured Q factors. These results indicate that defect qubits in 3C SiC thin films show clear promise as a simple, scalable platform for interfacing defect qubits with photonic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical devices.
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